Skrivet av: Anton Assarsson | 06 oktober 2010

Rosenkransens högtid

Rosenkransens högtid – 7 oktober

Prof. Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira

Högtiden Vår Fru av Rosenkransen instiftades av St. Pius V till minne av segern vid Lepanto den 7 oktober 1571 över turkarna som hotade Europa. År 1716 inskrevs den i kyrkans universella kalender i tacksägelse för segern mot den muslimska halvmånen i Ungern.

Vår Fru uppenbarade rosenkransdevotionen för den helige Dominikus. Den uppstod alltså ur en privatuppenbarelse. Och vi vet att kyrkans fiender – både inre och yttre – avskyr sådana uppenbarelser. Även om dess ursprung är en privatuppenbarelse upphöjdes rosenkransbönen till hela kyrkan och betraktades av St. Louis Grignion de Montfort som karaktäristisk för de predestinerade själarna.

Före det andra Vatikankonciliet inkluderade många ordensdräkter en rosenkrans som hängde från midjerepet, och goda katoliker brukade bära en rosenkrans med sig hela dagen. Den ansågs inte bara vara ett verktyg för att räkna Aves, utan också som ett helgat föremål, något som förseglade den särskilda förbindelsen mellan personen och vår Fru. Ofta stötte den blotta närvaron av en rosenkrans bort djävulen och drog till sig särskilda nåder. Den blev det klassiska kristna vapnet i striden mot djävulen.

Vad är rosenkransen? Rosenkransen är en serie meditationer över mysterier i vår Herres och vår Frus liv. Dessa mysterier är samtidigt böner som sägs högt och meditationer som man gör mentalt. Denna blandning av uttalad bön och inre meditation är något underbart, eftersom medan läpparna uttalar bönen koncentreras sinnet på en händelse i mysteriet. Det är en dubbel aktivitet som förenar en med Gud.

Bruket att be rosenkransen för att be om nådegåvor från Gud förutsätter den teologiska sanningen att vår Fru är universell förmedlerska (Mediatrix) av all nåd. Den är därför ett litet mästerverk av andlighet och katolsk doktrin såsom den bör förstås. Rosenkransen är inte en religiös sed som bygger på känslor, utan snarare på en allvarlig, solid och meditativ from sedvänja, vilket förklarar varför rosenkransen har medfört så många nådegåvor.

Det är mycket vackert och värdefullt att meditera över rosenkransens mysterier eftersom man kontemplerar olika teman med sina speciella nådegåvor för varje dekad. Det finns särskilda nådegåvor för bebådelsens mysterium, andra för smärtorna i Getsemane och än andra för vår Herres himmelsfärd. Varje enskild dekad har sin har sina speciella nådegåvor och den som mediterar över dem alla lockar till sin själ ensemblen av nådegåvor från vår Herres och vår Frus liv. En hel rosenkrans skänker ett övernaturligt överflöd till personens själ, vilket hjälper oss att bättre förstå rosenkransens välgörande inflytande.

En katolik som tänker och reflekterar över saker som rör tron borde dra slutsatser som bygger på varandra och blir en sorts arkitektur. Så borde katolikens andliga liv se ut. Det följer det sätt på vilket Gud regerar över universum. Han dömer och avgör, klokt och måttfullt, över allting. Det är ytterligare en anledning till varför rosenkransen är en ypperlig devotion.

Vi vet att segern vid Lepanto uppnåddes när St. Pius V avbröt ett möte med sina kardinaler i Vatikanen, gick till ett fönster och började att be rosenkransen. Han var djupt bekymrad över kyrkans och kristenhetens framtid som höll på att avgöras på Medelhavets vatten. När påven hade bett klart återgick han till mötet och berättade för kardinalerna att den katolska flottan hade segrat. Han hade fått en uppenbarelse medan han hade bett rosenkransen. Påven insåg vikten av detta och instiftade högtiden Vår Fru av Segern, som utvidgades till hela kyrkan till minne av en annan stor seger över muhammedanerna år 1716.*

 

St. Pius V får i en uppenbarelse se att Jungfru Maria skänkt de kristna styrkorna seger över muhammedanerna vid Lepanto!

 

Det faktum att denna devotion är särskilt knuten till segrar över kyrkans och kristenhetens fiender säger oss att den kommer att skydda dem som kämpar mot den katolska sakens fiender. Den är en devotion som förmodligen kommer att finnas kvar till tidernas slut då kyrkans fiender kommer att vara farligare än någonsin.

Därför kommer den ihärdiga recitationen av den heliga rosenkransen – också under den svåra tuktan som förutspåddes i Fatima – att vara en segerfaktor för dem som försvarar den katolska saken. De historiska bevisen på rosenkransens värde utgör ett löfte om framtida segrar.

När den helige Alfonso dei Liguori var gammal, sjuk och rullstolsbunden, brukade en lekbroder köra runt honom på klostergården i deras kloster på kvällen så att han skulle kunna få lite frisk luft. En kväll frågade den helige Alfonso honom:

“Har du bett din rosenkrans idag?”
“Jag kommer inte ihåg”, svarade lekbrodern.
“Låt oss då be den nu”, sa helgonet.
“Men du är redan så trött. Vad spelar det för roll om vi inte ber rosenkransen en dag?”, protesterade lekbrodern.
Den helige Alfonso svarade: “Om jag skulle låta bli att be rosenkransen en enda dag, skulle jag frukta för min eviga frälsning”.

Så sade ett helgon. Jag tycker om denna anekdot eftersom den lär oss att vi borde ha samma attityd. Den dagliga rosenkransen är en stor garant för bestående uthållighet och trohet för tiderna framför oss då profetiorna i Fatima kommer att uppfyllas. Segern i vårt dagliga Lepanto är kopplad till rosenkransen.

Låt oss be vår Fru av rosenkransen att välsigna vår intention att be rosenkransen dagligen och ge oss nåd att utföra den.

*) Efter den avgörande segern mot turkarna vid Lepanto 1571 instiftade St. Pius V högtiden Vår Fru av Segern. Gregorius XIII gav år 1573 högtiden ett nytt namn, Rosenkransens högtid. Clemens XII inskrev år 1716 festen i den universella kalendern som tacksägelse för segern mot turkarna vid Pétervárad i nuvarande Serbien. Han flyttade också högtiden till första söndagen i oktober. St. Pius X flyttade den år 1913 till sin nuvarande plats, 7 oktober.

Källa: http://www.traditioninaction.org/SOD/j097sdOurLadyRosary10-7.htm

Översättning: Anton Assarsson


Responses

  1. ”de predestinerade själarna”?

    • abc,

      Ja jag förstår att du reagerar på uttrycket. Det gjorde jag med. I den engelska originaltexten står det ”predestined souls”. Även många helgon använder uttrycket i sina skrifter och predikningar.

      När man nämner predestinationslära tänker de flesta på Calvins heresi som ”rejects the role of free will and teaches that grace is irresistible and that God by an absolute election saves the souls of some and abandons the souls of others.”

      Det är inte vad katoliken menar med uttrycket: ”The Roman Catholic Church teaches that predestination is consistent with free will since God moves the soul according to its nature…Thomas Aquinas […] ascribes salvation to the unmerited grace of God but links the lack of grace to sin.

      Längre förklaring från Catholic Encyclopedia (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12378a.htm) :

      The Catholic dogma

      Reserving the theological controversies for the next section, we deal here only with those articles of faith relating to predestination and reprobation, the denial of which would involve heresy.
      The predestination of the elect

      He who would place the reason of predestination either in man alone or in God alone would inevitably be led into heretical conclusions about eternal election. In the one case the error concerns the last end, in the other the means to that end. Let it be noted that we do not speak of the ”cause” of predestination, which would be either the efficient cause (God), or the instrumental cause (grace), or the final cause (God’s honour), or the primary meritorious cause, but of the reason or motive which induced God from all eternity to elect certain definite individuals to grace and glory. The principal question then is: Does the natural merit of man exert perhaps some influence on the Divine election to grace and glory? If we recall the dogma of the absolute gratuity of Christian grace, our answer must be outright negative (see GRACE). To the further question whether Divine predestination does not at least take into account the supernatural good works, the Church answers with the doctrine that heaven is not given to the elect by a purely arbitrary act of God’s will, but that it is also the reward of the personal merits of the justified (see MERIT). Those who, like the Pelagians, seek the reason for predestination only in man’s naturally good works, evidently misjudge the nature of the Christian heaven which is an absolutely supernatural destiny. As Pelagianism puts the whole economy of salvation on a purely natural basis, so it regards predestination in particular not as a special grace, much less as the supreme grace, but only as a reward for natural merit.

      The Semipelagians, too, depreciated the gratuity and the strictly supernatural character of eternal happiness by ascribing at least the beginning of faith (initium fidei) and final perseverance (donum perseverantiœ) to the exertion of man’s natural powers, and not to the initiative of preventing grace. This is one class of heresies which, slighting God and His grace, makes all salvation depend on man alone. But no less grave are the errors into which a second group falls by making God alone responsible for everything, and abolishing the free co-operation of the will in obtaining eternal happiness. This is done by the advocates of heretical Predestinarianism, embodied in its purest form in Calvinism and Jansenism. Those who seek the reason of predestination solely in the absolute Will of God are logically forced to admit an irresistibly efficacious grace (gratia irresistibilis), to deny the freedom of the will when influenced by grace and wholly to reject supernatural merits (as a secondary reason for eternal happiness). And since in this system eternal damnation, too, finds its only explanation in the Divine will, it further follows that concupiscence acts on the sinful will with an irresistible force, that there the will is not really free to sin, and that demerits cannot be the cause of eternal damnation.

      Between these two extremes the Catholic dogma of predestination keeps the golden mean, because it regards eternal happiness primarily as the work of God and His grace, but secondarily as the fruit and reward of the meritorious actions of the predestined. The process of predestination consists of the following five steps: (a) the first grace of vocation, especially faith as the beginning, foundation, and root of justification; (b) a number of additional, actual graces for the successful accomplishment of justification; (c) justification itself as the beginning of the state of grace and love; (d) final perseverance or at least the grace of a happy death; (e) lastly, the admission to eternal bliss. If it is a truth of Revelation that there are many who, following this path, seek and find their eternal salvation with infallible certainty, then the existence of Divine predestination is proved (cf. Matthew 25:34; Revelation 20:15). St. Paul says quite explicitly (Romans 8:28 sq.): ”we know that to them that love God, all things work together unto good, to such as, according to his purpose, are called to be saints. For whom he foreknew, he also predestinated to be made conformable to the image of his Son; that he might be the first born amongst many brethren. And whom he predestinated, them he also called. And whom he called, them he also justified. And whom he justified, them he also glorified.” (Cf. Ephesians 1:4-11) Besides the eternal ”foreknowledge” and foreordaining, the Apostle here mentions the various steps of predestination: ”vocation”, ”justification”, and ”glorification”. This belief has been faithfully preserved by Tradition through all the centuries, especially since the time of Augustine.

      There are three other qualities of predestination which must be noticed, because they are important and interesting from the theological standpoint: its immutability, the definiteness of the number of the predestined, and its subjective uncertainty.

      (1) The first quality, the immutability of the Divine decree, is based both on the infallible foreknowledge of God that certain, quite determined individuals will leave this life in the state of grace, and on the immutable will of God to give precisely to these men and to no others eternal happiness as a reward for their supernatural merits. Consequently, the whole future membership of heaven, down to its minutest details, with all the different measures of grace and the various degrees of happiness, has been irrevocably fixed from all eternity. Nor could it be otherwise. For if it were possible that a predestined individual should after all be cast into hell or that one not predestined should in the end reach heaven, then God would have been mistaken in his foreknowledge of future events; He would no longer be omniscient. Hence the Good Shepherd says of his sheep (John 10:28): ”And I give them life everlasting; and they shalt not perish forever, and no man shall pluck them out of my hand.” But we must beware of conceiving the immutability of predestination either as fatalistic in the sense of the Mahommedan kismet or as a convenient pretext for idle resignation to inexorable fate. God’s infallible foreknowledge cannot force upon man unavoidable coercion, for the simple reason that it is at bottom nothing else than the eternal vision of the future historical actuality. God foresees the free activity of a man precisely as that individual is willing to shape it. Whatever may promote the work of our salvation, whether our own prayers and good works, or the prayers of others in our behalf, is eo ipso included in the infallible foreknowledge of God and consequently in the scope of predestination (cf. St. Thomas, I, Q. xxiii, a. 8). It is in such practical considerations that the ascetical maxim (falsely ascribed to St. Augustine) originated: ”Si non es prædestinatus, fac ut prædestineris” (if you are not predestined, so act that you may be predestined). Strict theology, it is true, cannot approve this bold saying, except in so far as the original decree of predestination is conceived as at first a hypothetical decree, which is afterwards changed to an absolute and irrevocable decree by the prayers, good works, and perseverance of him who is predestined, according to the words of the Apostle (2 Peter 1:10): ”Wherefore, brethren, labour the more, that by good works you may make sure your calling and election.”

      God’s unerring foreknowledge and foreordaining is designated in the Bible by the beautiful figure of the ”Book of Life” (liber vitæ, to biblion tes zoes). This book of life is a list which contains the names of all the elect and admits neither additions nor erasures. From the Old Testament (cf. Exodus 32:32; Psalm 68:29) this symbol was taken over into the New by Christ and His Apostle Paul (cf. Luke 10:20; Hebrews 12:23), and enlarged upon by the Evangelist John in his Apocalypse [cf. Apocalypse 21:27: ”There shall not enter into it anything defiled … but they that are written in the book of life of the Lamb” (cf. Revelation 13:8; 20:15)]. The correct explanation of this symbolic book is given by St. Augustine (City of God XX.13): ”Præscientia Dei quæ non potest falli, liber vitæ est” (the foreknowledge of God, which cannot err, is the book of life). However, as intimated by the Bible, there exists a second, more voluminous book, in which are entered not only the names of the elect, but also the names of all the faithful on earth. Such a metaphorical book is supposed wherever the possibility is hinted at that a name, though entered, might again be stricken out [cf. Apocalypse 3:5: ”and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life” (cf. Exodus 32:33)]. The name will be mercilessly cancelled when a Christian sinks into infidelity or godlessness and dies in his sin. Finally there is a third class of books, wherein the wicked deeds and the crimes of individual sinners are written, and by which the reprobate will be judged on the last day to be cast into hell (cf. Revelation 20:12): ”and the books were opened; … and the dead were judged by those things which were written in the books according to their works”. It was this grand symbolism of Divine omniscience and justice that inspired the soul-stirring verse of the Dies irœ according to which we shall all be judged out of a book: ”Liber scriptus proferetur: in quo totum continetur”. Regarding the book of life, cf. St. Thomas, I, Q. xxiv, a. 1—3, and Heinrich-Gutberlet, ”Dogmat. Theologie”, VIII (Mainz, 1897), section 453.

      (2) The second quality of predestination, the definiteness of the number of the elect, follows naturally from the first. For if the eternal counsel of God regarding the predestined is unchangeable, then the number of the predestined must likewise be unchangeable and definite, subject neither to additions nor to cancellations. Anything indefinite in the number would eo ipso imply a lack of certitude in God’s knowledge and would destroy His omniscience. Furthermore, the very nature of omniscience demands that not only the abstract number of the elect, but also the individuals with their names and their entire career on earth, should be present before the Divine mind from all eternity. Naturally, human curiosity is eager for definite information about the absolute as well as the relative number of the elect. How high should the absolute number be estimated? But it would be idle and useless to undertake calculations and to guess at so and so many millions or billions of predestined. St. Thomas (I, Q. xxiii, a. 7) mentions the opinion of some theologians that as many men will be saved as there are fallen angels, while others held that the number of predestined will equal the number of the faithful angels.

      Lastly, there were optimists who, combining these two opinions into a third, made the total of men saved equal to the unnumbered myriads of berated spirits. But even granted that the principle of our calculation is correct, no mathematician would be able to figure out the absolute number on a basis so vague, since the number of angels and demons is an unknown quantity to us. Hence, ”the best answer”, rightly remarks St. Thomas, ”is to say: God alone knows the number of his elect”. By relative number is meant the numerical relation between the predestined and the reprobate. Will the majority of the human race be saved or will they be damned? Will one-half be damned the other half saved? In this question the opinion of the rigorists is opposed to the milder view of the optimists. Pointing to several texts of the Bible (Matthew 7:14; 22:14) and to sayings of great spiritual doctors, the rigorists defend as probable the thesis that not only most Christians but also most Catholics are doomed to eternal damnation. Almost repulsive in its tone is Massillon’s sermon on the small number of the elect. Yet even St. Thomas (loc. cit., a. 7) asserted: ”Pauciores sunt qui salvantur” (only the smaller number of men are saved). And a few years ago, when the Jesuit P. Castelein (”Le rigorisme, le nombre des élus et la doctrine du salut”, 2nd ed., Brussels, 1899) impugned this theory with weighty arguments, he was sharply opposed by the Redemptorist P. Godts (”De paucitate salvandorum quid docuerunt sancti”, 3rd ed., Brussels, 1899). That the number of the elect cannot be so very small is evident from the Apocalypse (vii, 9). When one hears the rigorists, one is tempted to repeat Dieringer’s bitter remark: ”Can it be that the Church actually exists in order to people hell?” The truth is that neither the one nor the other can be proved from Scripture or Tradition (cf. Heinrich-Gutberlet, ”Dogmat. Theologie”, Mainz, 1897, VIII, 363 sq.). But supplementing these two sources by arguments drawn from reason we may safely defend as probable the opinion that the majority of Christians, especially of Catholics, will be saved. If we add to this relative number the overwhelming majority of non-Christians (Jews, Mahommedans, heathens), then Gener* (”Theol. dogmat. scholast.”, Rome, 1767, II, 242 sq.) is probably right when he assumes the salvation of half of the human race, lest ”it should be said to the shame and offence of the Divine majesty and clemency that the [future] Kingdom of Satan is larger than the Kingdom of Christ” (cf. W. Schneider, ”Das andere Leben”, 9th ed., Paderborn, 1908, 476 sq.).

      (3) The third quality of predestination, its subjective uncertainty, is intimately connected with its objective immutability. We know not whether we are reckoned among the predestined or not. All we can say is: God alone knows it. When the Reformers, confounding predestination with the absolute certainty of salvation, demanded of the Christian an unshaken faith in his own predestination if be wished to be saved, the Council of Trent opposed to this presumptuous belief the canon (Sess. VI, can. xv): ”S. q. d., hominem renatum et justificatum teneri ex fide ad credendum, se certo esse in numero prædestinatorum, anathema sit” (if any one shall say that the regenerated and justified man is bound as a matter of faith to believe that he is surely of the number of the predestined, let him be anathema). In truth, such a presumption is not only irrational, but also unscriptural (cf. 1 Corinthians 4:4; 9:27; 10:12; Philippians 2:12). Only a private revelation, such as was vouchsafed to the penitent thief on the cross, could give us the certainty of faith: hence the Tridentine Council insists (loc. cit., cap. xii): ”Nam nisi ex speciali revelatione sciri non potest, quos Deus sibi elegerit” (for apart from a special revelation, it cannot be known whom God has chosen). However, the Church condemns only that blasphemous presumption which boasts of a faithlike certainty in matters of predestination. To say that there exist probable signs of predestination which exclude all excessive anxiety is not against her teaching. The following are some of the criteria set down by the theologians: purity of heart, pleasure in prayer, patience in suffering, frequent reception of the sacraments, love of Christ and His Church, devotion to the Mother of God, etc.”


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